The Cognition

The cognition is one part of the intellectual education.

The development of a child between 2 and 3 in the process of cognition consists mainly in:

  • developing curiosity,
  • active stimulation of the child’s efforts to examine, practically try and search for interesting objects,
  • leading to attend to simple details, features and attributes of objects as well as discerning the attributes, e.g. short – long, hot – cold, wet – dry, clean –dirty,
  • knowing and naming all visible body parts,
  • calling the objects of daily use and activities by name,
  • naming the familiar fruit and vegetables correctly,
  • simple targeting and matching the objects from natural environment (a tree, a flower, grass, a butterfly, a bug, a ;bird etc.),
  • knowing the common means of transport,
  • learning how to say own name as well as the names and surnames of the close relatives,
  • learning the natural phenomena and explaining the principles of nature protection,
  • discerning various sounds,
  • identifying familiar objects in the picture and their correlations (e.g. a butterfly – a flower, a cat – milk, a house – a tree, a car – a road).

The child between 3 and 4 should be able to gain a broader scale of knowledge by means of cognition by:

  • being able to name all of the family members,
  • reacting properly to the red traffic light (i.e. not to stay on the road, not to play on the road, …),
  • discerning the means of transport according to their appearance and purpose (e.g. a car, a train, a plane),
  • naming and sorting main types of clothes and shoes and knowing their purpose,
  • identifying the objects of everyday use, their typical attributes and purpose (e.g. food, drinks etc.),
  • sorting out the dangerous objects (e.g. really sharp and spiky objects),
  • naming and assigning the correct color name – red, yellow, blue, green,
  • discerning striking differences between the objects (big – small, short - long),
  • being well versed in the times of the day with regard to peculiar activities (morning – getting up, breakfast, midday – lunch, evening – bedtime story, sleep),
  • perceiving the changes in the nature in the course of the year (leaf shedding, the tree is bare, new leaves, the flowers are blooming, difference between a broadleaf and a deciduous tree),
  • naming and distinguishing between fruit and vegetables based on their appearance and taste (e.g. apple, pear, orange, carrot, tomato),
  • identifying some attributes (appearance, size, sound, motion) of the domestic animals (a dog, a cat), farm animals (a hen), wild animals (a hare, a squirrel), the insects (an ant, a bee, a butterfly), birds, fish and exotic animals (ZOO),
  • identifying and naming the body parts (a head, the ears, a mouth, a nose, a neck, the limbs),
  • determining current weather using words and pictures (the sun shines, it is raining, the clouds, it is snowing),
  • understanding and distinguishing between the meaning and the content of the words (obedient – disobedient, good –evil).

Courtesy of the ageing process and continual cognition of the outside world, the child between 4 and 5 should:

  • complete a simple task,
  • know his name, surname, age and address,
  • know the names of his friends,
  • name the rooms where he spends his time,
  • respond properly to the traffic lights signals (red, green),
  • distinguish between a fireman, a policeman and a soldier according to the appearance (basic equipment and arms),
  • know the traffic signs (sidewalks for pedestrians, crosswalks, pedestrian bridges and underpasses etc.),
  • know the names and purpose of the means of transport (a car, a train, a plane, a ship – both cargo and passenger ones),
  • have knowledge of professions and name the machines and tools related to them,
  • name properly the objects of daily use and to know their typical attributes and purpose,
  • determine the properties of the materials various objects are made of (e.g. paper, glass, wood, plastic),
  • know and name the colors (red, blue, yellow, green, white, black),
  • name, compare and distinguish between the size of the objects (e.g. a big ball – a small ball, a short train – a long train, a small tree – a bigger tree),
  • determine correctly the times of the day with regard to the greetings (morning – good morning, afternoon – good afternoon, evening – good evening),
  • distinguish between a day (it is light outside) and a night (it is dark outside),
  • identify and be attentive to typical features of the seasons (spring – the trees are in bloom, summer – time spent at the swimming pool, the grain is ripe, the harvest, fall – the fruit and vegetables ripen, the leaves are falling, winter – the broadleaf trees are bare, snow),
  • know and name at least three flowers,
  • distinguish between a broadleaf tree and a deciduous tree, know the difference between a tree and a bush,
  • distinguish and name fruit and vegetables based on their appearance, taste and scent (a cherry, a plum, grapes, a carrot, a radish, a tomato),
  • know and name some animals and birds: domestic (a dog, a cat), farm animals (a hen, a horse), wild animals (a hare, a squirrel, a hedgehog), the insects (an ant, a bee, a butterfly, a fly), the birds (a pigeon, a sparrow), the fish, exotic animals (ZOO), (typical traits, benefits and how they live),
  • know and name visible body parts and their function (a head, a neck, the ears, a mouth, a nose, a back, breasts, a belly, the limbs, the fingers, an arm, a knee),
  • understand the changes in weather (e.g. it is cold in winter, it is freezing, it is hot in summer),
  • determine correctly the natural phenomena (identify with words and with pictures the current weather situation, sun, the clouds, wind, rain, snow, ice and know their impact on the safety of the traffic).

Based on the knowledge and skills gained by cognition, the child between 5 and 6 should:

  • know to say the occupation of his parents,
  • know the names of the kindergarten teachers,
  • know the way from his house to the kindergarten, to the shop and to the doctor,
  • know basic rule show to behave on the road,
  • know and identify the means of transport, distinguish between them based on their motion (on the ground, in the water, in the air), sound and specific warning signals,
  • know the pedestrian traffic signs and their meaning,
  • observe the adults at work and identify typical traits of the work activities,
  • get acquainted with the environment under natural circumstances (in course of playing games, during a stroll) and solve appropriate situations (e.g. finding the exit, the shortest route etc.)
  • know and name the colors (red, yellow, blue, green, white, black, orange, purple, brown and grey) and their shades,
  • remember five expressions which have been said (echoic memory) or shown in a picture (iconic memory) recently,
  • know and name basic ingredients for preparing food and their origin,
  • distinguish between a circle, a square, a triangle and a rectangle and find them in the room or in the picture,
  • understand the perception of time: the present – today, the past – yesterday, the future – tomorrow,
  • distinguish between characteristic features of the weather and the seasons,
  • sort out the flowers into various groups (garden flowers, meadow flowers, healing flowers and indoor flowers),
  • distinguish between the broadleaf and deciduous trees, know their fruits (e.g. a cone, an acorn, a chestnut), know the types of bushes (a dog-rose, a blackthorn),
  • know, name and sort out fruit and vegetables according to their appearance, taste, scent and where you can find them,
  • name the body parts and basic internal organs and know their function, e.g. the heart or the lungs),
  • distinguish between the left and right side,
  • express his pain and know how to behave when visiting a doctor,
  • name the types of clothes and know which one to choose according to the weather,
  • distinguish between the domestic and farm animals and their younglings (typical traits, benefits and how they live),
  • know the wild animals (e.g. a hare, a squirrel, a hedgehog, a frog), the birds (e.g. a pigeon, a sparrow, a blackbird), the insects (e.g. an ant, a butterfly, a bee, a fly, a ladybug), their basic traits, habitat and how they live,
  • distinguish between some exotic animals (e.g. in the ZOO), describe their appearance and name them.

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