6 years old child

These are the main abilities and skills within the intellectual education for 6 years old children.

The cognition

Based on the knowledge and skills gained by cognition, the child between 5 and 6 should:

  • know to say the occupation of his parents,
  • know the names of the kindergarten teachers,
  • know the way from his house to the kindergarten, to the shop and to the doctor,
  • know basic rule show to behave on the road,
  • know and identify the means of transport, distinguish between them based on their motion (on the ground, in the water, in the air), sound and specific warning signals,
  • know the pedestrian traffic signs and their meaning,
  • observe the adults at work and identify typical traits of the work activities,
  • get acquainted with the environment under natural circumstances (in course of playing games, during a stroll) and solve appropriate situations (e.g. finding the exit, the shortest route etc.)
  • know and name the colors (red, yellow, blue, green, white, black, orange, purple, brown and grey) and their shades,
  • remember five expressions which have been said (echoic memory) or shown in a picture (iconic memory) recently,
  • know and name basic ingredients for preparing food and their origin,
  • distinguish between a circle, a square, a triangle and a rectangle and find them in the room or in the picture,
  • understand the perception of time: the present – today, the past – yesterday, the future – tomorrow,
  • distinguish between characteristic features of the weather and the seasons,
  • sort out the flowers into various groups (garden flowers, meadow flowers, healing flowers and indoor flowers),
  • distinguish between the broadleaf and deciduous trees, know their fruits (e.g. a cone, an acorn, a chestnut), know the types of bushes (a dog-rose, a blackthorn),
  • know, name and sort out fruit and vegetables according to their appearance, taste, scent and where you can find them,
  • name the body parts and basic internal organs and know their function, e.g. the heart or the lungs),
  • distinguish between the left and right side,
  • express his pain and know how to behave when visiting a doctor,
  • name the types of clothes and know which one to choose according to the weather,
  • distinguish between the domestic and farm animals and their younglings (typical traits, benefits and how they live),
  • know the wild animals (e.g. a hare, a squirrel, a hedgehog, a frog), the birds (e.g. a pigeon, a sparrow, a blackbird), the insects (e.g. an ant, a butterfly, a bee, a fly, a ladybug), their basic traits, habitat and how they live,
  • distinguish between some exotic animals (e.g. in the ZOO), describe their appearance and name them.

The mathematical thinking

The ever-improving level of the child’s mathematical skills ensures that the child between 5 and 6 can:

  • describe the location of objects with regard to his own person, his body, limbs and body parts using prepositions (e.g. there is a picture in front of me, a desk behind me etc.) and the relative position of two separate objects (e.g. the book is on the table); he can also determine whether an object is located somewhere or not (e.g. whether it is or it is not in the shelf etc.),
  • assemble more complex structures using the instructions, pictures as well as his own imagination,
  • determine his positon on a square grid (the child solves mazes and marks his movement using arrows from one point to the predefined destination),
  • distinguish between geometric shapes (both two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects),
  • sort out the objects based on their prerequisites (etc. are the objects red and wooden?),
  • compare and sort out the objects by their size (length, width, height), weight (lighter, heavier), volume (comparing the amount of liquid fitting into various containers),
  • create sets based on a predetermined attribute (color, shape, size, volume etc.),
  • understand words (at least one, all objects, all people, none, every, some person, some people etc.),
  • draw, sort out and organize the objects and pictures into a table with heading (e.g. there is color in the row and size in the column),
  • divide an object into parts (one half, one quarter) and determines the number, amount and shape,
  • count to six and knows ordinal numbers,
  • create a set consisting of objects sharing common attributes out of 2 or 3 groups of objects.

The language and speech

The language and speech capabilities of a child between 5 and 6 should be developed to the extent that the child can:

  • actively utilize the vocabulary, the words identifying objects, phenomena, activities and the words describing ideas, emotions or wishes,
  • naturally use all parts of speech (the nouns and adjectives, the verbs, pronouns, numerals, prepositions and conjunctions...),
  • perceive and understand the common and different traits of standard vocabulary and dialects,
  • discern the sound of a phoneme at the beginning and the end of the word,
  • divide the word into syllables and determine the first and the last syllable and phoneme,
  • pronounce all of the phonemes and syllables correctly,
  • use the complex sentences and compound sentences,
  • create antonyms and diminutives,
  • understand humor and riddles
  • create plural nouns using the singular form,
  • recite a poem,
  • determine basic traits of the fairy-tale characters in the TV and talk about them,
  • come up with a short story based on a picture,
  • establish and maintain a dialogue without turning it into a monologue.

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