5 years old child

These are the main abilities and skills within the intellectual education for 5 years old children.

The cognition

Courtesy of the ageing process and continual cognition of the outside world, the child between 4 and 5 should:

  • complete a simple task,
  • know his name, surname, age and address,
  • know the names of his friends,
  • name the rooms where he spends his time,
  • respond properly to the traffic lights signals (red, green),
  • distinguish between a fireman, a policeman and a soldier according to the appearance (basic equipment and arms),
  • know the traffic signs (sidewalks for pedestrians, crosswalks, pedestrian bridges and underpasses etc.),
  • know the names and purpose of the means of transport (a car, a train, a plane, a ship – both cargo and passenger ones),
  • have knowledge of professions and name the machines and tools related to them,
  • name properly the objects of daily use and to know their typical attributes and purpose,
  • determine the properties of the materials various objects are made of (e.g. paper, glass, wood, plastic),
  • know and name the colors (red, blue, yellow, green, white, black),
  • name, compare and distinguish between the size of the objects (e.g. a big ball – a small ball, a short train – a long train, a small tree – a bigger tree),
  • determine correctly the times of the day with regard to the greetings (morning – good morning, afternoon – good afternoon, evening – good evening),
  • distinguish between a day (it is light outside) and a night (it is dark outside),
  • identify and be attentive to typical features of the seasons (spring – the trees are in bloom, summer – time spent at the swimming pool, the grain is ripe, the harvest, fall – the fruit and vegetables ripen, the leaves are falling, winter – the broadleaf trees are bare, snow),
  • know and name at least three flowers,
  • distinguish between a broadleaf tree and a deciduous tree, know the difference between a tree and a bush,
  • distinguish and name fruit and vegetables based on their appearance, taste and scent (a cherry, a plum, grapes, a carrot, a radish, a tomato),
  • know and name some animals and birds: domestic (a dog, a cat), farm animals (a hen, a horse), wild animals (a hare, a squirrel, a hedgehog), the insects (an ant, a bee, a butterfly, a fly), the birds (a pigeon, a sparrow), the fish, exotic animals (ZOO), (typical traits, benefits and how they live),
  • know and name visible body parts and their function (a head, a neck, the ears, a mouth, a nose, a back, breasts, a belly, the limbs, the fingers, an arm, a knee),
  • understand the changes in weather (e.g. it is cold in winter, it is freezing, it is hot in summer),
  • determine correctly the natural phenomena (identify with words and with pictures the current weather situation, sun, the clouds, wind, rain, snow, ice and know their impact on the safety of the traffic).

Based on the knowledge and skills gained by cognition, the child between 5 and 6 should:

  • know to say the occupation of his parents,
  • know the names of the kindergarten teachers,
  • know the way from his house to the kindergarten, to the shop and to the doctor,
  • know basic rule show to behave on the road,
  • know and identify the means of transport, distinguish between them based on their motion (on the ground, in the water, in the air), sound and specific warning signals,
  • know the pedestrian traffic signs and their meaning,
  • observe the adults at work and identify typical traits of the work activities,
  • get acquainted with the environment under natural circumstances (in course of playing games, during a stroll) and solve appropriate situations (e.g. finding the exit, the shortest route etc.)
  • know and name the colors (red, yellow, blue, green, white, black, orange, purple, brown and grey) and their shades,
  • remember five expressions which have been said (echoic memory) or shown in a picture (iconic memory) recently,
  • know and name basic ingredients for preparing food and their origin,
  • distinguish between a circle, a square, a triangle and a rectangle and find them in the room or in the picture,
  • understand the perception of time: the present – today, the past – yesterday, the future – tomorrow,
  • distinguish between characteristic features of the weather and the seasons,
  • sort out the flowers into various groups (garden flowers, meadow flowers, healing flowers and indoor flowers),
  • distinguish between the broadleaf and deciduous trees, know their fruits (e.g. a cone, an acorn, a chestnut), know the types of bushes (a dog-rose, a blackthorn),
  • know, name and sort out fruit and vegetables according to their appearance, taste, scent and where you can find them,
  • name the body parts and basic internal organs and know their function, e.g. the heart or the lungs),
  • distinguish between the left and right side,
  • express his pain and know how to behave when visiting a doctor,
  • name the types of clothes and know which one to choose according to the weather,
  • distinguish between the domestic and farm animals and their younglings (typical traits, benefits and how they live),
  • know the wild animals (e.g. a hare, a squirrel, a hedgehog, a frog), the birds (e.g. a pigeon, a sparrow, a blackbird), the insects (e.g. an ant, a butterfly, a bee, a fly, a ladybug), their basic traits, habitat and how they live,
  • distinguish between some exotic animals (e.g. in the ZOO), describe their appearance and name them.

The mathematical thinking

By using his mathematical knowledge, the child between 4 and 5 should:

  • know and discern geometric shapes: a circle, a square, a rectangular and a triangle,
  • place the objects under more complex instructions (in front of, behind, under, over, between, the first, the last),
  • point at the objects with a certain attribute – shape, color and size,
  • organize the objects within a group and determine what should and should not be included in the group,
  • assemble simple structures using the instructions,
  • distinguish between the objects according to their shape and call them by the name (e.g. round, angular, pointy etc.),
  • identify stages of sizes and shapes (e.g. big – bigger – the biggest, round – angular – pointy, small – bigger – the biggest, short – longer – the longest, narrow – broader – the broadest),
  • put simple objects into the slots matching their shape,
  • solve simple mazes (searching and highlighting the routes between two points),
  • understand and distinguish between the words (e.g. all, none, every),
  • create sets of elements based on a predetermined attribute: size, color and shape (identify objects sharing these attributes, such as small blue balls...),
  • create couples by matching the words (one coat, one hanger...),
  • discern and use the words expressing the amount and number of things (all, many, more, nothing, few/little, less/fewer, as many as, the same),
  • know how to count at least to 4,
  • apply the knowledge of numbers 1 – 4 (more, less, equally), e.g. 1 = me, 2 = me and you, 3 = me, you and him, 4 = me, you, him and her,
  • divide the set consisting of 2 – 4 elements into more groups and determine number of elements in each group, then assembling the groups back into the set,
  • organize a group of elements based on a certain logic order and a timeframe and use the terms (e.g. in the fairy tale: who was the first, the last, in front – behind, according to the first and the last, what happened at the beginning and at the end of the story...),
  • discern who is at the top, at the bottom, on the left and on the right in the two-dimensional space.

The ever-improving level of the child’s mathematical skills ensures that the child between 5 and 6 can:

  • describe the location of objects with regard to his own person, his body, limbs and body parts using prepositions (e.g. there is a picture in front of me, a desk behind me etc.) and the relative position of two separate objects (e.g. the book is on the table); he can also determine whether an object is located somewhere or not (e.g. whether it is or it is not in the shelf etc.),
  • assemble more complex structures using the instructions, pictures as well as his own imagination,
  • determine his positon on a square grid (the child solves mazes and marks his movement using arrows from one point to the predefined destination),
  • distinguish between geometric shapes (both two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects),
  • sort out the objects based on their prerequisites (etc. are the objects red and wooden?),
  • compare and sort out the objects by their size (length, width, height), weight (lighter, heavier), volume (comparing the amount of liquid fitting into various containers),
  • create sets based on a predetermined attribute (color, shape, size, volume etc.),
  • understand words (at least one, all objects, all people, none, every, some person, some people etc.),
  • draw, sort out and organize the objects and pictures into a table with heading (e.g. there is color in the row and size in the column),
  • divide an object into parts (one half, one quarter) and determines the number, amount and shape,
  • count to six and knows ordinal numbers,
  • create a set consisting of objects sharing common attributes out of 2 or 3 groups of objects.

The language and speech

Within the scope of the acquired language and speech skills, the child between 4 and 5 should know how to:

  • name the most encountered persons, objects and phenomena properly,
  • use and understand growing number of words and understand their meaning,
  • use adjectives and verbs (e.g. the Little Prince is drawing a picture of boa constrictor...),
  • play with words based on how they sound, their rhythmical and semantic attributes (e.g. to find the similar sounding words (they do not have to rhyme), for example a bat – a cat, Bobby – Robbie, itsy – bitsy ....),
  • solve the problems using specific objects, pictures and riddles and describe and give verbal reasons of this solution (e.g. the sweater is put on a shirt, or the shirt comes first and then the sweater etc.),
  • discern the intensity and duration of various tones and sounds with hearing (feeble and intense knocking, long and short ringing of the bell...),
  • discern the articulated speech and be responsive to where the sound comes from, the source of the sound (who is speaking), prosodic features of speech (pause, volume, pitch, length and speed of the phonemes, syllables and words),
  • pronounce the phonemes and syllables (fricatives and gradually even phoneme the “r”),
  • reproduce a simple text with the assistance of questions,
  • listen to the fairy tales reproduced in the verbal form of the standard language,
  • gradually establish a dialogue and listen to the speaker.

The language and speech capabilities of a child between 5 and 6 should be developed to the extent that the child can:

  • actively utilize the vocabulary, the words identifying objects, phenomena, activities and the words describing ideas, emotions or wishes,
  • naturally use all parts of speech (the nouns and adjectives, the verbs, pronouns, numerals, prepositions and conjunctions...),
  • perceive and understand the common and different traits of standard vocabulary and dialects,
  • discern the sound of a phoneme at the beginning and the end of the word,
  • divide the word into syllables and determine the first and the last syllable and phoneme,
  • pronounce all of the phonemes and syllables correctly,
  • use the complex sentences and compound sentences,
  • create antonyms and diminutives,
  • understand humor and riddles
  • create plural nouns using the singular form,
  • recite a poem,
  • determine basic traits of the fairy-tale characters in the TV and talk about them,
  • come up with a short story based on a picture,
  • establish and maintain a dialogue without turning it into a monologue.

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