4 years old child

These are the main abilities and skills within the intellectual education for 4 years old children.

The cognition

The child between 3 and 4 should be able to gain a broader scale of knowledge by means of cognition by:

  • being able to name all of the family members,
  • reacting properly to the red traffic light (i.e. not to stay on the road, not to play on the road, …),
  • discerning the means of transport according to their appearance and purpose (e.g. a car, a train, a plane),
  • naming and sorting main types of clothes and shoes and knowing their purpose,
  • identifying the objects of everyday use, their typical attributes and purpose (e.g. food, drinks etc.),
  • sorting out the dangerous objects (e.g. really sharp and spiky objects),
  • naming and assigning the correct color name – red, yellow, blue, green,
  • discerning striking differences between the objects (big – small, short - long),
  • being well versed in the times of the day with regard to peculiar activities (morning – getting up, breakfast, midday – lunch, evening – bedtime story, sleep),
  • perceiving the changes in the nature in the course of the year (leaf shedding, the tree is bare, new leaves, the flowers are blooming, difference between a broadleaf and a deciduous tree),
  • naming and distinguishing between fruit and vegetables based on their appearance and taste (e.g. apple, pear, orange, carrot, tomato),
  • identifying some attributes (appearance, size, sound, motion) of the domestic animals (a dog, a cat), farm animals (a hen), wild animals (a hare, a squirrel), the insects (an ant, a bee, a butterfly), birds, fish and exotic animals (ZOO),
  • identifying and naming the body parts (a head, the ears, a mouth, a nose, a neck, the limbs),
  • determining current weather using words and pictures (the sun shines, it is raining, the clouds, it is snowing),
  • understanding and distinguishing between the meaning and the content of the words (obedient – disobedient, good –evil).

Courtesy of the ageing process and continual cognition of the outside world, the child between 4 and 5 should:

  • complete a simple task,
  • know his name, surname, age and address,
  • know the names of his friends,
  • name the rooms where he spends his time,
  • respond properly to the traffic lights signals (red, green),
  • distinguish between a fireman, a policeman and a soldier according to the appearance (basic equipment and arms),
  • know the traffic signs (sidewalks for pedestrians, crosswalks, pedestrian bridges and underpasses etc.),
  • know the names and purpose of the means of transport (a car, a train, a plane, a ship – both cargo and passenger ones),
  • have knowledge of professions and name the machines and tools related to them,
  • name properly the objects of daily use and to know their typical attributes and purpose,
  • determine the properties of the materials various objects are made of (e.g. paper, glass, wood, plastic),
  • know and name the colors (red, blue, yellow, green, white, black),
  • name, compare and distinguish between the size of the objects (e.g. a big ball – a small ball, a short train – a long train, a small tree – a bigger tree),
  • determine correctly the times of the day with regard to the greetings (morning – good morning, afternoon – good afternoon, evening – good evening),
  • distinguish between a day (it is light outside) and a night (it is dark outside),
  • identify and be attentive to typical features of the seasons (spring – the trees are in bloom, summer – time spent at the swimming pool, the grain is ripe, the harvest, fall – the fruit and vegetables ripen, the leaves are falling, winter – the broadleaf trees are bare, snow),
  • know and name at least three flowers,
  • distinguish between a broadleaf tree and a deciduous tree, know the difference between a tree and a bush,
  • distinguish and name fruit and vegetables based on their appearance, taste and scent (a cherry, a plum, grapes, a carrot, a radish, a tomato),
  • know and name some animals and birds: domestic (a dog, a cat), farm animals (a hen, a horse), wild animals (a hare, a squirrel, a hedgehog), the insects (an ant, a bee, a butterfly, a fly), the birds (a pigeon, a sparrow), the fish, exotic animals (ZOO), (typical traits, benefits and how they live),
  • know and name visible body parts and their function (a head, a neck, the ears, a mouth, a nose, a back, breasts, a belly, the limbs, the fingers, an arm, a knee),
  • understand the changes in weather (e.g. it is cold in winter, it is freezing, it is hot in summer),
  • determine correctly the natural phenomena (identify with words and with pictures the current weather situation, sun, the clouds, wind, rain, snow, ice and know their impact on the safety of the traffic).

The mathematical thinking

The mathematical thinking of a child between 3 and 4 should enable him to:

  • place the objects in the room based on the instructions (on, in, under...),
  • distinguish (not identify) the objects based on their shape (circular, triangular, square),
  • put simple objects into the slots matching their shape,
  • discern the size of the objects (small – big, long – short),
  • solve simple mazes (to move from the start to a predefined point and to find various options where to move),
  • understand the quantificators (all, none),
  • point out the differences (various attributes like size and color) between two similar objects (show which one of those two objects are e.g. small, red...),
  • organize a group of elements based on the logical order and use respective terms (e.g. to determine the first, second and last object),
  • create groups consisting of a certain number of elements (1 or 2 elements at the most).
  • assign respective number based on the amount of elements (1 or 2) and compare them,
  • assemble various cube structures and construction sets,
  • sort out the objects according to the size and color (red, yellow, blue, green).

By using his mathematical knowledge, the child between 4 and 5 should:

  • know and discern geometric shapes: a circle, a square, a rectangular and a triangle,
  • place the objects under more complex instructions (in front of, behind, under, over, between, the first, the last),
  • point at the objects with a certain attribute – shape, color and size,
  • organize the objects within a group and determine what should and should not be included in the group,
  • assemble simple structures using the instructions,
  • distinguish between the objects according to their shape and call them by the name (e.g. round, angular, pointy etc.),
  • identify stages of sizes and shapes (e.g. big – bigger – the biggest, round – angular – pointy, small – bigger – the biggest, short – longer – the longest, narrow – broader – the broadest),
  • put simple objects into the slots matching their shape,
  • solve simple mazes (searching and highlighting the routes between two points),
  • understand and distinguish between the words (e.g. all, none, every),
  • create sets of elements based on a predetermined attribute: size, color and shape (identify objects sharing these attributes, such as small blue balls...),
  • create couples by matching the words (one coat, one hanger...),
  • discern and use the words expressing the amount and number of things (all, many, more, nothing, few/little, less/fewer, as many as, the same),
  • know how to count at least to 4,
  • apply the knowledge of numbers 1 – 4 (more, less, equally), e.g. 1 = me, 2 = me and you, 3 = me, you and him, 4 = me, you, him and her,
  • divide the set consisting of 2 – 4 elements into more groups and determine number of elements in each group, then assembling the groups back into the set,
  • organize a group of elements based on a certain logic order and a timeframe and use the terms (e.g. in the fairy tale: who was the first, the last, in front – behind, according to the first and the last, what happened at the beginning and at the end of the story...),
  • discern who is at the top, at the bottom, on the left and on the right in the two-dimensional space.

The language and speech

The language level of the child between 3 and 4 should ensure that he easily:

  • names the most encountered persons, animals, plants, objects, activities and phenomena,
  • solves puzzles and riddles (using specific objects or distinct pictures),
  • listens to the fairy tales reproduced in the verbal form of the standard language,
  • distinguishes between various sounds using his hearing,
  • pronounces the phonemes clearly (using various pictures for help – the bee makes the “bzzz” sound, the train makes “choo-choo”, the car makes “toot-toot”, the donkey makes “hee-haw”...),
  • reproduces a simple text with assistance.

Within the scope of the acquired language and speech skills, the child between 4 and 5 should know how to:

  • name the most encountered persons, objects and phenomena properly,
  • use and understand growing number of words and understand their meaning,
  • use adjectives and verbs (e.g. the Little Prince is drawing a picture of boa constrictor...),
  • play with words based on how they sound, their rhythmical and semantic attributes (e.g. to find the similar sounding words (they do not have to rhyme), for example a bat – a cat, Bobby – Robbie, itsy – bitsy ....),
  • solve the problems using specific objects, pictures and riddles and describe and give verbal reasons of this solution (e.g. the sweater is put on a shirt, or the shirt comes first and then the sweater etc.),
  • discern the intensity and duration of various tones and sounds with hearing (feeble and intense knocking, long and short ringing of the bell...),
  • discern the articulated speech and be responsive to where the sound comes from, the source of the sound (who is speaking), prosodic features of speech (pause, volume, pitch, length and speed of the phonemes, syllables and words),
  • pronounce the phonemes and syllables (fricatives and gradually even phoneme the “r”),
  • reproduce a simple text with the assistance of questions,
  • listen to the fairy tales reproduced in the verbal form of the standard language,
  • gradually establish a dialogue and listen to the speaker.

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