3 years old child

These are the main abilities and skills within the intellectual education for 3 years old children.

The cognition

The development of a child between 2 and 3 in the process of cognition consists mainly in:

  • developing curiosity,
  • active stimulation of the child’s efforts to examine, practically try and search for interesting objects,
  • leading to attend to simple details, features and attributes of objects as well as discerning the attributes, e.g. short – long, hot – cold, wet – dry, clean –dirty,
  • knowing and naming all visible body parts,
  • calling the objects of daily use and activities by name,
  • naming the familiar fruit and vegetables correctly,
  • simple targeting and matching the objects from natural environment (a tree, a flower, grass, a butterfly, a bug, a bird etc.),
  • knowing the common means of transport,
  • learning how to say own name as well as the names and surnames of the close relatives,
  • learning the natural phenomena and explaining the principles of nature protection,
  • discerning various sounds,
  • identifying familiar objects in the picture and their correlations (e.g. a butterfly – a flower, a cat – milk, a house – a tree, a car – a road).

The child between 3 and 4 should be able to gain a broader scale of knowledge by means of cognition by:

  • being able to name all of the family members,
  • reacting properly to the red traffic light (i.e. not to stay on the road, not to play on the road, …),
  • discerning the means of transport according to their appearance and purpose (e.g. a car, a train, a plane),
  • naming and sorting main types of clothes and shoes and knowing their purpose,
  • identifying the objects of everyday use, their typical attributes and purpose (e.g. food, drinks etc.),
  • sorting out the dangerous objects (e.g. really sharp and spiky objects),
  • naming and assigning the correct color name – red, yellow, blue, green,
  • discerning striking differences between the objects (big – small, short - long),
  • being well versed in the times of the day with regard to peculiar activities (morning – getting up, breakfast, midday – lunch, evening – bedtime story, sleep),
  • perceiving the changes in the nature in the course of the year (leaf shedding, the tree is bare, new leaves, the flowers are blooming, difference between a broadleaf and a deciduous tree),
  • naming and distinguishing between fruit and vegetables based on their appearance and taste (e.g. apple, pear, orange, carrot, tomato),
  • identifying some attributes (appearance, size, sound, motion) of the domestic animals (a dog, a cat), farm animals (a hen), wild animals (a hare, a squirrel), the insects (an ant, a bee, a butterfly), birds, fish and exotic animals (ZOO),
  • identifying and naming the body parts (a head, the ears, a mouth, a nose, a neck, the limbs),
  • determining current weather using words and pictures (the sun shines, it is raining, the clouds, it is snowing),
  • understanding and distinguishing between the meaning and the content of the words (obedient – disobedient, good –evil).

The mathematical thinking

The child between 2 and 3 starts to create his mathematical view of the world. The parents can back up the child by:

  • leading him to assemble various cube structures,
  • leading him to sort out the objects based on the size,
  • sorting out the objects according to the four colors (red, yellow, blue, green),
  • sorting out the objects according to the four shapes (a cube, a ball, a triangular prism and a cylinder),
  • discerning objects according to their attributes (e.g. the color – the shape etc.),
  • responding to clauses which give location of things and persons (bring it here, put it on, sit down, stand up, throw away, hang it up etc.),
  • teaching to understand time perception and vocabulary (in the morning, in the evening, now, later, quickly, slowly).

The mathematical thinking of a child between 3 and 4 should enable him to:

  • place the objects in the room based on the instructions (on, in, under...),
  • distinguish (not identify) the objects based on their shape (circular, triangular, square),
  • put simple objects into the slots matching their shape,
  • discern the size of the objects (small – big, long – short),
  • solve simple mazes (to move from the start to a predefined point and to find various options where to move),
  • understand the quantificators (all, none),
  • point out the differences (various attributes like size and color) between two similar objects (show which one of those two objects are e.g. small, red...),
  • organize a group of elements based on the logical order and use respective terms (e.g. to determine the first, second and last object),
  • create groups consisting of a certain number of elements (1 or 2 elements at the most).
  • assign respective number based on the amount of elements (1 or 2) and compare them,
  • assemble various cube structures and construction sets,
  • sort out the objects according to the size and color (red, yellow, blue, green).

The language and speech

The development of the child’s language and speech between 2 and 3 relies solely on the help of the parents and their activities to encourage speech and language development. Their task is to:

  • use mother tongue as a pattern of communication,
  • read the books with the child and name the characters, objects and activities,
  • develop the memory in a natural way and encourage the child to recall previous experiences,
  • encourage the child to concentrate on a certain activity and to complete it,
  • encourage the child to talk in various real life situations,
  • encourage the child to ask questions and provide simple answers,
  • teach the child to carry out basic orders,
  • narrate the fairy tales and short stories to the child and add pictures,
  • ensure that the child expresses himself by using words rather than gestures,
  • teach the child basic verses and encourage him to remember them.

The language level of the child between 3 and 4 should ensure that he easily:

  • names the most encountered persons, animals, plants, objects, activities and phenomena,
  • solves puzzles and riddles (using specific objects or distinct pictures),
  • listens to the fairy tales reproduced in the verbal form of the standard language,
  • distinguishes between various sounds using his hearing,
  • pronounces the phonemes clearly (using various pictures for help – the bee makes the “bzzz” sound, the train makes “choo-choo”, the car makes “toot-toot”, the donkey makes “hee-haw”...),
  • reproduces a simple text with assistance.

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